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Reservation "Capitalism" - Economic Development in Indian Country
By Professor Robert J. Miller
Volume XIX Issue 05
SMOKE SIGNAL NEWS
Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow
Hello Beautiful People! We have a great deal of pent up emotion that makes us feel we are bursting at the seams. Do we dare release all that we know at this time? The beautiful events that occurred at the Place of Peace over the past few months are indeed extraordinary and cry out to be shared, but we are forced to keep silent until the moment arrives. Prophesy will be fulfilled and the sacredness of this magnificent place of the Unbroken Circle will emerge.
We hope you like the changes in the new Smoke Signal News. For your convenience and reading pleasure, we have done away with the excessively long newsletters to be replaced with shorter, timely articles. We are here to preserve and protect the sacred Manataka mountain. ~editor
By Grandmother L. Cota Nupah Makah
Gray strips of light seeped around the old green window shade. Dust floated in the air and danced across the floor. I lay here wondering what time it was but did not want to get up to see. The light shuffle of my Aunt Rose's feet in the kitchen as she put on the coffee sound down the hall way. For such a big tall women she walked softly. Read More...
Manataka Sacred Grounds Being Developed
As we hike the trails of Manataka Mountain today, we find no monuments to the gentle people who were once the keepers of Manataka (Place of Peace). Only the Grandfathers now tell the story of the Rainbow Woman who blessed and guarded the Valley and the healing waters of Nówâ-sa-lon, the hot springs.... Read More...
The Holy Mother of Manataka
Several important stories of Manataka speak of the great feminine spirit, IxChel, Mother God, Holy Mother of the Mountain, the Rainbow Woman of Manataka.... Read More...
The Conscious Being - Part III
By Lee Standing Bear Moore and the Spirit of Takatoka
Part I of the Conscious Being defined consciousness and explored its various forms and concepts. We talked about how consciousness is expanding and ways that cosmic changes in the universe are affecting our consciousness. We opened the veil to understand how things were set in motion long ago to bring humans to a closer and infinite mass consciousness that will bring about a magnificent Awakening.
Part II of the Conscious Being announced that the people of Manataka and the sacred site of Manataka will play a significant role helping to inform millions of people worldwide who yearn to discover how these events will be presented and ways they will affect our human lives and spirits. We explored ways that transition is important to the survival of the human spirit and how the transition began slowly hundreds of years ago. At the end of both Part I and Part II, we listed 'Things To Think About' that outlined ways to begin the process of interpersonal transition.
Part III will lift the veil of understanding even higher as we explore ways to prepare ourselves for the future. We will focus on the magnificent gifts the Great Mystery has laid before us and ways to use those special gifts for the glory of God through the holy spirit found within all people. It is a natural evolution of worldwide transformation that is occurring now with millions of silent and happy hearts who will gently love a new mass consciousness into reality.
A great deal of everything written by mainstream media and personal websites about predictions of the year 2012 are poppycock - nonsense. The media uses fear to increase audiences for the sake of greed. Similarly, we believe fear-based assumptions about worldwide devastation and the end of the world found in Revelations of the Bible are misinterpreted and used by religious fanatics to control the masses with fear -- for the sake of power and greed. Literally, the word apocalypse means the "lifting of the veil" and refers to a disclosure of what was hidden from the majority of mankind. In this time dominated by government, corporate and religious distortion, misconception and manipulation, it is easy to fall prey to those who want to frighten the masses.
It is also easy to look beyond the fear and believe what was behind the veil is no longer hidden.
"Sacred sites and areas are protection for all people the four colors for man and these sites are in all areas of the earth in the four directions." -- Traditional Circle of Elders, Northern Cheyenne
The Elders say that values come from the Mother Earth. Different places and areas around the Earth have different values. The Water people live in harmony and know the values that correspond to that particular part of the Earth. The Desert people know the values of the desert and respect and live in harmony with that part of the Earth. The Woodland people know the values of their part of the Earth and live in harmony. If you live in harmony with the Earth, you will live a life that is full of values. We should have great respect for the Mother Earth.
Grandfather, today, let me learn values from Mother Earth.
DID YOU KNOW?
People have been in the New World
for 250,000 years
If you are absolutely convinced that people first arrived in the Americas a mere 15-30 thousand years ago, this is because you have been spoon-fed by an institution that will not allow you to see conflicting data. When scientific institutions withhold empirical data in order to promote a single belief system they can manipulate a trusting public into believing whatever paradigm they wish to impose upon them. Those who trust the institutions but do not investigate the evidence themselves are easily prodded along. On the website shown below you can view actual archaeological data straight from a tephrochronologist (volcanic ash expert, Ph.D). Re-claim your ability to think for yourself. Go beyond what you read on blogs or watch on standard science programs and be prepared to question what you have long been taught regarding the peopling of the Americas. (This website is under construction. However, much of the data on the archaeological sites can be viewed temporarily on the Valsequillo and Hueyatlaco forums of the website.
REPRINT - How Did Indians Get Their Name?
Every public school in the United States teaches children that in 1492 Christopher Columbus called the people he found in the New World, "Indians" because he thought he had discovered India. We now know this is a lie first told by the Catholic Church and continued by the white Eurocentric establishment ever since. How do we know it is a lie?
Evidence 1: In 1492 there was no country in the world called India -- it was called Hindustan. There was no Indian Ocean -- it was called the Eastern Sea. There were no people called Indians -- they were called Hindus.
Evidence 2: Columbus and his brother butchered and enslaved thousands of Taino people and caused their near extinction. Prior to his jubilant return to Spain, Columbus called them "Los Populos Indios" -- The People of God. In 1493, the Catholic church issued a papal bull that ordained and gave license to the monarchs of Europe to invade and subjugate indigenous people. The English word "Indian" is clearly a poor translation of the word "Indios" meaning God in Portuguese.
Vanishing Bees Blamed on Pesticides
The collapse of honey bee populations
in recent years has been one of the underpublicized environmental crises likely
to have real-world consequences for humans—plainly put, bees are dying,
scientists don’t know why, and food as we know it will suffer if we can’t
reverse this trend. A frequently cited estimate is that one-third of the food we
eat depends on pollinating bees.
According to a report at msnbc.com, two studies have now shown that a widely-used pesticide may be at least partly to blame. The group of chemicals known as neonicotinoid insecticides are used frequently to keep insects from damaging flowering crops like corn, sunflower and cotton.
A study by British scientists found that honey bees exposed to allegedly non-lethal levels of the pesticide encountered impaired homing ability and a higher mortality rate away from the hive. Meanwhile, French scientists found that bumble bees exposed to the pesticide “had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens,” according to MSNBC. Scientists from both study groups professed surprise at the magnitude of their findings. CropLife America, a pesticide industry group released a statement critical of the studies, saying many other factors were not taken into account and asserting that the doses of pesticide used were “unrealistic.”
The bee problem has been addressed by a recent acclaimed documentary, Vanishing of the Bees, narrated by actress Ellen Page:
Click here to view the embedded video.
Nomlaki Wintun Tribal member Named Opening Day
From Indian Country Today Media Network
Last year, Kyle Lohse, Nomlaki Wintun, helped the St. Louis Cardinals win the World Series. Today, he’s helping them start their season as their opening day pitcher in their game against the Florida Marlins in Miami, an honor bestowed on a player trusted to help the team start their baseball season off on the right track.
Last season Lohse became only the 36th active pitcher to win 100 games when he helped lead the Cardinals to a 7-4 victory over the Pittsburgh Pirates.
The Cardinals Chris Carpenter, arguably one of the best pitchers in the game, is out of the lineup indefinitely. Lohse won more games, however, and had a better ERA, than anyone on the staff last season. Lohse remains humble despite his success and getting the nod to open the season for the defending champs.
“It is an honor. But at the same time, Carp or Waino could be the ones out there doing it,” said Lohse to Jenifer Langosch of MLB.com. “I wish it was in a different circumstance, but I’ll be ready to get it going. That’s not really going to change my approach or anything. It’s Opening Day, but it counts as much as the hopefully 33, 34 other starts that I get.”
Earth Mother & Purification Time
Ngungu’taota (greetings, we are relations), Tutskwa I’qatsi (Land and Life are one).
My Hopi name is Hohongwitutiwa, which was given to me by my Hopi father when he adopted me as his son. My Hopi father was a mongwi, a priest of the higher religious order. As his son and kiikelt (young hawk/learner), I was taught sacred knowledge kept by the Hopi, which according to their original instructions was to be freely given out at the end of this Fourth World. My father’s dreams and visions, as well as the signs around us, told him that now was the time to share this knowledge, as the Hopi were instructed by Masau ages ago. Together with my father, I openly shared this knowledge for two years, until his death, and will continue to do so as long as I am able. You may know my father from the name he used on the internet: Wikimahaw. The knowledge being passed to our brothers and sisters is sent from our Earth Mother to all of Her children, a giveaway to prepare us for the times ahead. I am privileged to be one of those sharing this information with you. I do so with humility and respect.
In our modern age, ancient truths once known have been mostly lost leading to the world of today, where our Mother Earth is seen as inert matter, a planet to be subdued rather than a living entity within whose great life ours are given. As stated in the first Hopi pootskwani or spirit law (Tutskwa I’qatsi) Tuuwaqatsi/Earth Mother is our land and our lIfe, the one who provides us with the spirit of life and everything else we possess. She is our true Rock of Ages, nurturing us from age-to-age as She moves us ever forward toward the Fifth World, following each purification time. Read More...
Native American Music Awards 2012
NOMINATION SUBMISSION FORMS & ADVISORY MEMBERSHIP APPLICATIONS
Download the NAMA 2012 Nomination Submission form
to Submit a Recording for Nomination Consideration
14th Annual Native American Music Awards
Recording Eligibility Period April 1, 2011 - June 1, 2012
Submission Entry Deadline June 30, 2012
Nomination Selection Process/Membership Voting August 1, 2012
Open Voting/General Public Fall 2012
Fourteenth Annual Awards Show - Tentatively scheduled for November 30, 2012 at Seneca Niagara Casino
The Native American Music Awards & Association (NAMA) is proud to announce that the new 2012 Awards Advisory Membership Applications and NAMA Nomination Submission Forms are now available on our website, via fax or email by request.
We look forward to the commitment and participation of all 2012 Advisory Board members. The professional contributions from our Advisory members and Industry music makers has helped establish the Native American Music Awards as the international premiere Awards program “devoted to bringing indigenous music to the world’s consciousness.” NY TIMES
The Native American Music Awards & Association (N.A.M.A.) presents awards in over 30 music categories. A global audience now participates in the Awards voting with thousands of voters originating not only from the U.S. and Canada, but also from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Russia, Sweden, Austria, United Kingdom, Norway, France, The Netherlands, Ireland, Mexico, Denmark, China, Switzerland, Wales, South Africa, and Belgium.
Nomination Submissions can only be made by active and registered Advisory members. Membership priviledges also include: Nomination Voting, Winner Elections, & Special Discounts to the Annual Awards Show.
The Native American Music Awards & Association would like to thank our entire membership for their contributions and look forward to their continuing commitment to excellence and honoring new musical initiatives throughout the coming year.
Reconciliation, Part II
By David Three Dogs Armstrong
Sequel to Reconciliation - Part I
The Beauty Path that Runs Unashamedly Through Us
There is a River in the forest; it springs up from a place high in the mountains, so far away and so long ago that no one quite knows where it came from; indeed, it is apparent it has always been there.
One might say that the River runs into the Ocean, but it’s almost worthy to say that the Ocean runs into the River. The River runs across the whole world, and all the streams and creeks and tributaries in the world draw their substance from it. They break off and they twist and they twine but always find their way back, through wood and over rock and with the help of those that come to drink. Each branching off is its own distinct entity, and yet, it is of the same substance and nature as the River; more than anything, they are different pictures of the River brought out, the River’s personality shown uniquely yet powerfully in the undignified yet honorable race of each brook from its origin and to it again.
This River, my friends, is the Great Spirit, the Eternal One (lit. meaning of Yahweh in Hebrew), the Great Mystery, the Father and Mother of All, and you are His (and Her) tributaries. Read More...
Circling the Wagons: Many National Parks Get Indian Stories
By Robert Pahre
National parks are America’s great outdoor classrooms, and they attract about 300 million visitors a year, from school groups to senior citizens, mountain climbers to families in minivans. The vast majority of those people will flip through the park’s brochure, browse exhibits at in the visitor center, and read some of the informational signs posted at the roadside turnouts. The more organized or ambitious of the visitors perhaps even checked out the park’s website before they came. In all those venues the National Park Service (NPS) interprets the site for visitors, teaching them about the park and why it is important.
That adds up to a lot of history, a lot of stories. There are stories about the American Revolution in Boston and Philadelphia, about the Confederacy on Civil War battlefields, about segregation along the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, about pioneers and Indians along the monuments to Western Expansion. The parks that preserve wild nature, such as Yellowstone, Yosemite or the Everglades, also tell a lot of historical stories. Even a national recreational area or seashore like Lake Mead or Fire Island will interpret the area’s history for visitors on their way to those beaches. Read More....
I had a dream the other night. I was in the old West riding in a stagecoach. Suddenly, a Native warrior riding a horse pulled up to the left side of the stagecoach, and a rider-less horse pulled up on the right. The warrior leaned down, pulled open the door, jumped off his horse into the stagecoach. He opened the door on the other side, and jumped aboard the other horse. I yelled out as he rode off, "What was that all about?" --- "Nothing," he called back, it's just a stage I'm going through."
Asparagus: A New Old Cancer Fighter
A Mom had been taking the full-stalk canned style asparagus that she pureed and she took 4 tablespoons in the morning and 4 tablespoons later in the day. She did this for over a month. She is on chemo pills for Stage 3 lung cancer in the plural area and her cancer cell count went from 386 down to 125 as of this past week. Her oncologist said she does not need to see him for 3 months.
Several years ago, I had a man seeking asparagus for a friend who had cancer. He gave me a photocopied copy of an article, entitled, Asparagus for cancer 'printed in Cancer News Journal, December 1979. I will share it here, just as it was shared with me: I am a biochemist, and have specialized in the relation of diet to health for over 50 years. Several years ago, I learned of the discovery of Richard R. Vensal, D.D.S. that asparagus might cure cancer. Since then, I have worked with him on his project. We have accumulated a number of favorable case histories. Here are a few examples: Read More...
Indian in a Former Life
I just read an article you posted recently by Andrea Smith "For all those of you who were Indian in a former life". I am blown away by how much I needed to read this. I just cut ties with a teaching partner because I felt she was falling victim to these problems Andrea outlines (appropriating things- she is a white woman with a medicine name) I don't know if you or if possible Andrea, could view the website of this person for me and let me know your thoughts. I would gratefully appreciate your feed back. I really respect that you posted this article. Thank you so much. (I am a singer in Toronto who is Face book friends with another singer named Tanya Gillis who posted it on her wall- she is Indian) ~Leah Salomaa www.leahsalomaa.com Read 12 More Letters
Manataka Elder Council Biographies
Listen To The Wind by Tom Haley
A magnificent collection of American Indian poems, prayers and wisdom by a new member of Manataka, Reverend Tom Haley, pastor of the Rock Creek Christian Church in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas. Rev. Haley is a graduate of Hendrix College and Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University. He has written a number of books including God and Son, Inc (2012), The Laughing Jesus: and His Other Faces (2012); Along the Path: Meditations and Reflections on Life (2012); Haley's Comments (1991); Prayers with Wings (1985); and Anchors in the Storm (1983). He and his wife, Amanda, have three adult children and three grandchildren. His newest book shares the beautiful depth and breadth of American Indian wisdom. Listen To The Wind is only $10.00 and proceeds from this book go to the Manataka American Indian Council. Buy Now!
By Manataka Elder, The Rev. Dr. Fred D. Wilcoxson PhD
“Each of us is put here in this time and this place to personally decide the future of humankind. Did you think the Creator would create unnecessary people in a time of such terrible danger? Know that you yourself are essential to this World.” — Chief Arvol Looking Horse of the Lakota, Dakota and Nakota Nation, 19th Generation Keeper of the Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe
Let us never forget that our Creator doesn’t create unnecessary people. We all can be reminded with this story that we should never take anyone, anywhere, anytime for granted. Read More...
Happiness is a Voyage
If you open your heart when it is hurting and offer your hand to another then you have connected to what being a human being is all about. One cannot go through life hating or being selfish or mistrusting for any reason. I know at times in our humanness we all find this part of our lives as not acceptable but we all do it just the same.
I was feeling rather down as the traffic was slow and not being an established reader with no banner or advertising I certainly was just sitting there watching the crowd pass by.
I saw this young black African mother and her baby sitting waiting for a reading. Finally I made eye contact with her and she smiled and so did her baby. Being bored out of my mind we started to talk and she came to my table for a few minutes.
I had to of course; being a grandmother, and missing my own children, make some contact with her and the baby. We spoke and chatted for a while then she left after making an appointment with my friend for a reading on Sunday.
She came back on Sunday to get a reading but was late to her appointment because she could not find her wallet in her hurry to get herself and the baby dressed and ready to come to the fair. Read More..
Manataka Elder, 75-year old
Grandfather Daniel Seven Hawk Eyes Hoffman, was recently diagnosed
with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Notwithstanding his severe illness,
he is a strong man in many respects and maintains a beautiful
disposition and attitude. We ask for prayers for our dear respected
elder and friend.
Manataka Elder, 76-year old Grandfather Jimmie A. Looking For Wind Keefauver, recently underwent hospitalization for a serious blood disease and infections and is recovering at home. Jimmie appears to be doing much better now. We are offering up prayers for our revered friend and honored elder.
7-year old Ian
Ryan Hit By USPS Truck
"I got a call at 3:45 a.m. our time today that our grandson who lives in Georgia was struck by a mail carrier vehicle and dragged 150 feet. He was flown to Egleston Children's Emergency Hospital in Atlanta. He is in surgery now. My wife Jo is on her way driving up there at this time. Please keep our grandson Ian Ryan (7) in your prayers as well as Jo's safe trip up there. Ian was hit as he played in a sandbox in his yard. The last update was 04-05-12 when it was reported that Ian is home and very sore. According to his granfather, "Prayer works!" ~Rev. Fred Wilcoxson, Manataka Elder 03-28-12
Cherokee National Treasure William “Bill” Eugene Rabbit of Pryor passed away April 9 in Tulsa at age 65. Rabbit was born in Wyoming on Dec. 3, 1946, and grew up in Pryor. He won numerous awards during the 30-plus years he worked as an artist. For nearly 20 years he worked in partnership with his daughter Traci, who is also an accomplished artist. They shared a studio in Pryor. In 2011, the Cherokee Nation named him a National Treasure for his artistry and for preserving Cherokee culture through his artwork.
When Onondaga Nation Clanmother Audrey Shenandoah-Gonwaiani passed into the spirit world on March 15 not only her family and community mourned but the entire Haudenosaunee Confederacy was cast into sorrow. For the past four decades she was a steady, reliable and dignified presence at Onondaga, ever ready to speak on behalf of the people while welcoming visitors to the capital and central fire of the world's first united nations. As a clanmother (Iakoiane in the Mohawk dialect of the Iroquois language) Gonwaiani accepted the responsibilities as not only a clan leader but as a caretaker for the culture of her nation. She was selected as clan leader after being closely observed by her people. They saw in her compassion, dedication, humility, knowledge, patience and a deep respect for the traditions and customs which define Haudenosaunee life. She was articulate in the Onondaga language, a skill which she shared with the Onondaga children for decades as a teacher at the Nation's school. Read More...
Niles Cesar, Tlingit and Haida Indian from Juneau, who was an integral piece in Indian health care in Alaska, walked on recently at his home in Anchorage, surrounded by his family and friends after a long illness according to JuneauEmpire.com. Cesar spent 20 years in the Medical Service Corps, including a year in Vietnam, before retiring from the Navy as a Lieutenant according to the Alaskapublic.com. He went on to receive his B.S. degree in environmental health. He spent 11 years (1979 to 1990) as the executive vice president of Southeast Alaska Regional Health Consortium, before leaving to spend the next 19 years as the director for the Alaska Bureau of Indian Affairs according to Alaskapublic.com. Through his time at the BIA, he worked to gain the most out of the services and benefits available to Alaska Natives, reported JuneauEmpire.com. He established the BIA Providers Conference and was an advocacy member on the Federal Subsistence Board in Alaska.
Robert Hall was born in Green Bay, Wisconsin and grew up with three generations of Stockbridge-Munsee women, so it’s no surprise he became known by his colleagues at the University of Illinois at Chicago as a leading authority on Native Americans.
Jim Brown, professor emeritus at Northwestern University, told the Chicago Tribune that Hall’s books—An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (University of Illinois Press, 1997) and a forthcoming companion Touching History: Four Centuries of Indian-White Relations—mark a turning point in Native American studies. But Hall won’t see his forthcoming book in print: He walked on March 16, at age 85 from complications associated with carcinoid cancer. He will be missed by the community at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He taught there from 1968 to 1998 and spent 10 of those years as chair of the Anthropology Department.
Calvin E. Lay of the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation, World War II veteran and long-time member of Seneca Nation Politics died February 19, 2012 in the Gowanda Nursing Home, Gowanda, New York, following a short illness. He was 86. According to Buffalo News, Lay was born in Red House, near Salamanca, New York; educated at the Thomas Indian School; and held various governmental positions with the Seneca Indian Nation throughout his life. Lay served in the Army’s 102nd Infantry Division, seeing combat in France and Belgium. According to Observer Today, he was a member of Iroquois Post 1587, American Legion, and held posts as chaplain, treasurer and commander. A member of the Deer Clan, Lay also served on boards for the Seneca Nation Library, the Seneca Nation Iroquois Museum, and helped fund the Tri-County and Lake Shore hospitals according to The Sun News.
Richard M. Milanovich - December 4, 1942 - March 11, 2012. Our community and the country have lost a courageous lion-hearted leader. A powerful voice for an entire culture will continue to be heard through the mystical whispers of time. Once in a generation comes a leader who demonstrates the character of true greatness – courage, humility and selflessness. Richard Milanovich, tribal chairman of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, was that kind of leader. He’s had the courage to take a stand against withering opposition in Washington and fight for all Native Americans. He possessed the humility to understand that his leadership was the legacy of his ancestors; and he took selfless risks that had inherent perils for potentially significant rewards for his people.
As the Tribal Chairman for nearly 30 years, Richard Milanovich has an extraordinary legacy.
Mario Hankerson. A little-known Mikkosukee linguist friend of mine. 1/2 Mikkosukee/ 1/2 Zulu. Conversational in the languages of the 5 Civilized Tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole, as well as the entirely different language, Mikkosukee. Had to leave Florida at an early age because the schools only taught to the 6th grade. Attended (now defunct) St. Catherine's in New Mexico where he became conversant in the Tiwa, Towa, Tewa, and Keres languages. Was allowed in the kiva at Santo Domingo and ran on the school track team (440 yard dash). Taught in the Sierra Tarahumara for 6 years, where he became conversant in Tarahumara (raramuri) and Spanish. Former administrator of the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo. Survived many years with diabetes, failed kidneys, and amputated legs at the knees. Always made the best of things. In the Sierra, he was called "chocame gano", meaning "black giant". Very sad to see him go. Another Native American library has burned to the ground. http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/elpasotimes/obituary.aspx?n=elbert-hankerson&pid=156253414
Josephine Jackson, who held a number of positions with the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe, walked on at the age of 76 on Monday, March 19. She was partially responsible for improving economic development on the Isabella Indian Reservation by bringing bingo to the tribe. She was part of a group that traveled to Florida in 1981 to see how the Seminole Tribe ran its bingo operation, reported the Morning Sun. What started as a small bingo operation in the tribal gymnasium has become the Soaring Eagle Casino & Resort in Mount Pleasant, Michigan and the Saganing Eagles Landing Casino in Standish, Michigan. “She was always looking for a way to enhance the revenue for the tribe,” long-time friend Bonnie Sprague, who now is the general manager of the Soaring Eagle Waterpark, slated to open in late spring, told the Morning Sun. Jackson, the daughter of Thomas and Beatrice (Davis) Pierce, was born on December 23, 1935 in Flint, Michigan. On January 25, 1954 she married Willis Jackson in Mount Pleasant, Michigan. She worked for the State of Michigan in Vocational Rehabilitation services, and was the general manager of the Soaring Eagle Casino in the early 1980s.
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